Paracetamol, just like aspirin, is a derivative of phenol. It is also sold under many names, like for example. Tylenol in the United States and Panadol in the United Kingdom. It has two advantages, who lack aspirin. It is absorbed through the stomach lining, making it effective after 10 minutes, while most aspirins are absorbed in the gut, so one should wait an hour or more for the effect. Moreover, paracetamol does not irritate the gastric mucosa. The analgesic properties of paracetamol have become apparent, when a patient was given acetanilide by mistake to his medications (a benzene derivative), which has proven to be an excellent pain reliever. Acetanilide is quite toxic and the body makes it harmless by converting it into paracetamol. You can see it from here, that the same positive effect as with the use of acetanilide can be obtained, by taking paracetamol directly. Just like aspirin, paracetamol blocks the action of an enzyme needed to make prostaglandins.
The use of paracetamol is not without its dangers. Two tablets give you a temporary feeling of relief during an attack of headache or muscle aches, natomiast 22 pills provide eternal relief – in Heaven. Despite this, four times two each day can be safely taken 500 milligram paracetamol tablets, week after week, month after month, year after year, provided, that the patient has an average body structure and weight and is in decent health. However, there are known cases of fatal poisoning in people with low body weight, which have accepted 10 paracetamol tablets within 24 hours. Niektórzy mogą nieświadomie przyjmować niebezpieczne dawki paracetamolu podczas przeziębienia, when they use a combination of different drugs, all of which may contain acetaminophen.
Paracetamol poisoning also threatens alcoholics with a damaged liver, potential suicides and people suffering from a condition known as bulimia nervosa. This ailment especially affects young women who care for their line pathologically. They take turns starving themselves with excessive eating. Some people use paracetamol, to make you vomit.
There, who want to commit suicide with paracetamol, often achieve their goal, even if they change their mind or are found in the process, before death occurs. Gastric lavage, Blood transfusion, connecting to an external support system often does not help. Paracetamol has already destroyed the liver, and temporary improvement only lasts a few days. Death comes about a week later. Paracetamol kills more than two thousand people worldwide each year.
Paracetamol is a good pain receptor blocker, but the body treats it like poison and tries to excrete it as quickly, how it's possible. There are two ways to neutralize paracetamol in the body. It is most often activated by enzymatic attachment of the sulphate group to the drug molecule. As a result, the drug becomes very soluble in water and can be filtered out in the kidneys. An alternative method involves the use of glucuronic acid by the enzymes, glucose derivative, to attach a carbohydrate moiety to the paracetamol molecule, which also facilitates the removal of this substance. When the amount of paracetamol in the body does not exceed the small recommended doses, the mentioned enzymes have no problem getting rid of the substance.
When we take too much paracetamol, the body tries its methods with sulfates or glucuronic acid, and if that's not enough, uses oxidation. This is a risky approach, because it produces a lethal poison, which the liver must dispose of as soon as possible, using glutathione. However, the liver is not able to quickly rebuild glutathione stores and with more poison its reserve is depleted. Then the harmful substance attacks and destroys the liver itself. Ten hours is enough, that the damage is irreparable.
The catastrophe is preventable, by giving an injection of N-acetylcysteine, as well as hepatic glutathione. Accidental overdose of paracetamol is therefore not dangerous, provided, that the injection will be given quickly enough. The effects of an overdose can also be counteracted, by adding methionine to the tablets. This simple amino acid, containing sulfur, naturally increases the amount of glutathione in the liver. Currently, it is planned to start selling a safe form of paracetamol with the addition of methionine.